Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand, and now it is the most populous city of the state. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.

The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi."Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi. One of the historically significant neighbourhoods of Rachi is Doranda (duran means song and daah  means water in the Mundari language). Doranda lies between the Hinoo (Bhusur) & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny.

Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.Ranchi is well known for being the hometown of former Indian cricket captain MS Dhoni.

Ranchi city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Ranchi Metropolitan Region. The Ranchi city is located in Jharkhand state of India.


As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Ranchi in 2011 is 1,073,427; of which male and female are 558,872 and 514,555 respectively. Although Ranchi city has population of 1,073,427; its urban / metropolitan population is 1,126,720 of which 586,596 are males and 540,124 are females.